Далее: Литература Вверх: Методические рекомендации Назад: Unit V. Before reading

Unit VI. Before reading the text concentrate on the following points

  1. What do you know about the East End?
  2. What improvements must be done there?
  3. What problems do the citizens of the East End have?


London is a city of great contrast. Its western part is the richest. The poorest part of London is the East End.


The East End grew with the spread of industries to the east of the City, and the growth of the port of London. It covers a wide area. A part like Bethnal Green, which was once a country village, [quite different from the areas down by the river, where there are many wharfs and warehouses.

It is also one of those areas of London where people from abroad have come to find work. For centuries foreigners have made London their home. Some have had to leave their country for religious or political reasons. Others have wanted to find a better life. Some brought new skills and started new industries. These days, many Jews and Bengalis live in the East End, and within a small area you can see a mosque, a church and a synagogue. The East End is especially famous as the centre of the clothing industry (or “rag-trade”) in London.

The East End markets are famous throughout the world. Petticoat Lane market takes place every Sunday morning and has become one of the sights of London. Street-salesmen promise that the goods are of the highest quality and much cheaper than those you can buy in the West End.

Traditionally someone born in the East End is known as a cockney although this name is now given to anyone who speaks like a Londoner. Typically they change certain vowel sounds so that the sound in “late” becomes more like that in “light”. Like some foreign learners of English they seem to have a few problems with “th” and use an “f” instead: “nuffink like it”.

During the last century, East End criminals developed a special kind of slang or language which made it difficult for the police to understand them. In certain parts of London this slang is still used, and some expressions have passed into normal, everyday English.

The East End is the poorest part of London. It is the most densely populated district of London. There are poor houses grey and black with smoke. Narrow dirty streets are lined by miserable houses and slums. St. Giles is the heart of London slums, the worst quarter of London. Most of the working people live in the East End. All the factories, mills, workshops and docks are concentrated in the East End.

Thus we may say that the East End is the hands of London, those hands which built the banks of the City, the palaces, hotels, theatres, rich houses and department stores in the West End.

Vocabulary Notes

The East End – Ист-Энд

Mosque — мечеть

Criminal — преступник

Petticoat Lane – Петтикоут- Лейн (улица в районе Ист-Энд)


In Britain today there are about two million colored citizens. They are mainly immigrants from Britain’s former colonies and their children who were born in Britain.

Immigrants started to enter Britain after 1950. They came because they couldn't find work in their own countries. They hoped to find a better way of life in their new home.

In Britain, they took the jobs which the native population didn’t want. The men took the hard and heavy jobs in industry, and the women took the low-paid jobs in factory canteens or restaurants. Immigrants work on the buses, the underground and the railways, or as doctors and nurses in under-staffed hospitals. Officially, immigrants and their children have the same rights as the natives of Britain. They have the right to vote and stand as candidates in elections. They all have British passports. Yet, many of them are poor and unemployed. There are various reasons for this: some have or have had difficulties with the language, or they came with very little education or money. Many have been the victims of racial discrimination. Unemployment among colored youth even with British education and qualification, for example, is much higher than among white youth.

The British government’s policy is that immigrants and their children should enjoy equality of opportunity in every possible way. There are laws which make it illegal to discriminate against people because of their race.

Besides, there are government and private organizations which try to improve relations between the white and colored populations. Yet, many people still discriminate against immigrants and their children because of the colour of their skin.

Vocabulary Notes

Under-stuffed hospitals — больницы с неукомплектованными штатами

To stand as a candidate — выставлять свою кандидатуру (на выборах)

Reading Comprehension Exercises

  1. Answer the questions.
    1. What is the East End?
    2. Where is it si­tuated?
    3. What people live in the East End?
    4. Where did most people come from?
    5. What people are called cockney?
    6. What do you know about them and their language?
    7. Why is the East End the poorest part of London?
    8. What is the British government’s policy in London?
    9. Who tries to improve relations between the white and colored populations?
    10. Would you like to live in the East End?
  2. Ask your fellow-students the questions to find out:
    1. If he is interested in the East End?
    2. If he knows why only immigrants live in the East End?
    3. If he has similar opinion with the British government’s policy?

Grammar Exercises

  1. Form adjectives from the following verbs using the suffix “-ing”. Translate them into Russian. To fascinate To excite To trade To interest

  2. Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct tense and voice forms.
    1. He (to bring up) by his parents to be a strict Catholic.
    2. Sue (to lose) her purse yesterday. It (to be) in her bag and her bag (not to fasten).
    3. He (to wound) when he (to try) to stop the man attacking a young girl. He (to shoot) in the leg.
    4. Finally after we (to wait) for half and hour salad, beefsteak and tea (to serve).
    5. The twins (to impress) by the beauty of the night city.
    6. The glass mirror (to invent) by the Romans.
    7. The huge pyramids (to decorate) with thousands of carved pictures.
    8. The textbook (to look) so shabby because it (to use) for many years.
    9. The crops (to damage) by the heavy rain falls and the peasants expected a hard year.
    10. The tickets (to bring) ten minutes before we (to start) for the airport.
    11. "Swan Lake" (to stage) throughout the whole century.
    12. In the Johnstown Flood of 1899 more than two thousand people (to kill). Furniture (to float) away and homes (to wreck). The flood (to cause) by a dam that (to break).
    13. Trafalgar Square (to lay out) in the 19th century.
    14. I (to sleep) for some time when I (to remember) that Red Chief (to say) I (to burn) at the stake.
    15. Many superstitions and occult practices (to build) on dreams to foretell the future.
    16. Garlic (to use) widely as a medicine. A bulb of garlic (to make up) of a number of small sections. Each section (to call) a clove. Each clove (to cover) by a thin skin. The cloves (to peel), (to chop) and (to use) in a variety of dishes.
  3. Change the following sentences using Prepositional Passive Constructions.

    Model: He takes care of her. — She is taken care of.

    1. The guests looked for the ring everywhere.
    2. He lis­tened to the lecturer very attentively.
    3. They laughed at the joke.
    4. We disagreed with his statement.
    5. You can rely on this person.
    6. They talked a lot about this film.
    7. We have never heard of him since.
    8. Nobody has slept in this room lately.
    9. The aunt looked after the children well.
    10. I shall look after your house while you are away.
    11. They agreed upon the date of the conference.
    12. They speak highly of this textbook.
    13. We have just sent for the doctor.
    14. Somebody is waiting for you downstairs.
    15. They take good care of their grandmother.
    16. He reads to his daughter every night.
    17. Our teacher often refers to this example.
    18. The dean approved of the timetable.
    19. They resorted to kidnapping.
    20. We must think over their proposal.
  4. Translate into Russian paying attention to the form of the verbs.
    1. The warship “Mary Rose” was forgotten for hundreds of years and was raised from the sea bottom only in 1982.
    2. The US Constitution has been amended 26 times since 1789 and will be further revised in the future.
    3. In addition to a right of succession, the vice-president was made the presiding officer of the Senate.
    4. The world”s first iron bridge was built over the River Severn to show how iron could be used.
    5. Local authorities in Great Britain are created and carrying out duties given by Parliament in Westminster.
    6. Most major services of the local government in Northern Ireland have been transferred to central government Agencies.
    7. Queen Elizabeth is concerned about certain kinds of issues, for example, maintaining the Com­monwealth.
    8. These papers are read by average Englishmen.
    9. Some English newspapers are published not for profit but because of the prestige they give the publishers.
    10. This letter ought to be sent before June the 1st.
    11. Ann is to be told about our change in plans.
    12. Christmas day is traditionally spent quietly at home. At tea time the crackets are pulled, the evening is spent in games, merriment and more eating and drinking.
    13. The Certificate of Secondary Education in Britain is designed for those pupils who are less academically able.
    14. I have always been convinced that industry is rewarded and giddiness is punished.
    15. The workers' strike was followed by a series of repressive measures on the part of the company administration.
    16. Stonehenge is often referred to as one of the mysteries of human civilizations.
    17. Allied military efforts were accompanied by a series of important international meetings on the political objectives of the war.
    18. The American society is often called the “Melting pot.”
    19. In November 1945 at Nuernberg the criminal trials that were provided for at Potsdam took place.
    20. What came to be called “The Civil Rights Revolution” reached a dramatic climax in 1963.

Lexical Exercises

  1. Express your supposition about our life in the 21st century using the model.

    Model: to change life — Life may be changed.

  2. Put the verbs in the correct tense and voice forms. The baby show which (to hold) in the grounds of Otwell Park in a sixteenth-century house in the suburbs of the town (to begin) already when they (to arrive). Two tents (to build) on the grass, one for tea, the other for the babies while merry-go-rounds and other games (to be) at a field behind the house. Even so, they (to make) such a noise that Mrs. Ruggles was afraid that William who (to fall) asleep, could (to awaken) unnecessarily. Heavens! How many babies! Fat and thin, dark and fair, plain and beautiful, crying and quiet. A bell (to ring) and a man's voice (to ask) that everyone but the children's mothers leave the tent.

    The babies (to divide) into two classes: those over six months but under a year old and those of one year and over but under two years old. Two prizes (to give) in each class and a big silver cup for the best baby in the show.

    At the end of the tent a space (to leave) behind curtains and the judges, a doctor and two nurses (to arrive) and (to disappear) behind them. Mrs. Ruggles (to be) pleased to see they (to be) not people from Otwell. The judge said that the results (to announce) outside the tea tent at five-fifteen.

    It (to be) five o'clock and a large crowd (to collect) in front of the tent. They all (to wait) for the names of the lucky babies which (to know) in a few minutes. The first prize (to give) to William Ruggles.

    The crowd (to break) into loud cheers. But Mrs. Ruggles (not to satisfy). The judge said that the Big Silver Cup (not to win) by William only because he (not to hurry) to cut his teeth. At last Wil­liam (to kiss) by complete strangers, the photos (to take) and the Ruggles (to come) home. By the time One End Street (to reach) they discovered that William (to get) a tooth. But alas, too late.

  3. Translate into English.
    1. Лондон – город контрастов, где самой бедной частью является Ист-Энд.
    2. Ист-Энд вырос благодаря развитию промышленности и порта Лондона.
    3. Ист-Энд занимает большую площадь.
    4. На протяжении многих веков иностранцы, приезжающие в Лондон, заселяли Ист-Энд.
    5. Уличные рынки Ист-Энда знамениты по весу миру, там товары самые дешевые.
    6. Несмотря на то, что Ист-Энд – самый бедный район города, он является самым густо населенным из всех районов Лондона.
    7. Все фабрики, заводы, мельницы, рынки и доки сконцентрированы в Ист-Энде.
    8. Эмигранты начали приезжать в Британию в середине 20 века, потому что не могли найти работу в своей стране.
    9. Официально, эмигранты и их дети имеют те же права, что и коренные жители Британии.
    10. Существует множество государственных и частных организаций, которые пытаются улучшить отношения между эмигрантами и коренными жителями Лондона.

Conversation and Discussion

  1. The working people of London live in the East End. What can you say about the East End and the people who live there? Why can we say that the East End is the hands of London? Do you know what writers described the life of poor people of London and Britain?
  2. Most population in the East End are immigrants. What rights do they enjoy? Why do many people still discriminate against them? Have you read anything about the life of colored people? Is it a new problem for the British? What can you say about it?
  3. Are there any people in Russia who can be called immigrants? Has our government problems connected with them?

Далее: Литература Вверх: Методические рекомендации Назад: Unit V. Before reading

ЯГПУ, Отдел образовательных информационных технологий